THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF THAILAND

AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY

FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION
AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION
WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF THAILAND
                                                AND

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY

Desiring to conclude an Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income

HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:

Article 1

PERSONAL SCOPE

This Agreement shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2

TAXES COVERED

  1. 1.This Agreement shall apply to taxes on income imposed on behalf of a Contracting State or of its political subdivisions or local authorities, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.
  2. 2.There shall be regarded as taxes on income all taxes imposed on total income, or on elements of income, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property, taxes on the total amounts of wages or salaries paid by enterprises as well as taxes on capital appreciation.
  3. 3.The existing taxes to which the Agreement shall apply are in particular:

in Thailand:

  1. i)the income tax; and
  2. ii)the petroleum income tax;

(hereinafter referred to as “Thai tax”).

in Turkey:

  1. i)the personal income tax;
  2. ii)the corporation income tax; and
  3. iii)the levy imposed on the personal income tax and the corporation income tax

(hereinafter referred to as “Turkish tax”);

  1. 4.The Agreement shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed after the date of signature of the Agreement in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of significant changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws.

Article 3

GENERAL DEFINITIONS

  1. 1.For the purposes of this Agreement, unless the context otherwise requires:
  2. a)i) the term “Thailand” means the Thai territory, territorial sea, as well as the maritime areas over which it has jurisdiction or sovereign rights for the purposes of exploration, exploitation and conservation of natural resources, pursuant to international law;

ii) the term “Turkey” means the Turkish territory, territorial sea, as well as the maritime areas over which it has jurisdiction or sovereign rights for the purposes of exploration, exploitation and conservation of natural resources, pursuant to international law;

  1. b)the terms “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” mean Turkey or Thailand as the context requires;
  2. c)the term “tax” means any tax covered by Article 2 of this Agreement;
  3. d)the term “person” includes an individual, a company and any other body of persons;
  4. e)the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;
  5. f)the term “national” means:
    1. i)any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;
    2. ii)any legal person, partnership and association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State;
    3. g)the terms “enterprise of a Contracting State” and “enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;
    4. h)the term “competent authority” means:
      1. i)in Thailand, the Minister of Finance or his authorised representative;
      2. ii)in Turkey, the Minister of Finance or his authorised representative; and
      3. i)the term “international traffic” means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State.
      4. 2.As regards the application of the Agreement at any time by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning that it has at that time under the law of that State for the purposes of the taxes to which the Agreement applies, any meaning under the applicable tax laws of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.

Article 4
RESIDENT

  1. 1.For the purposes of this Agreement, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, legal head office, place of incorporation, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature, and also includes that State and any political subdivision or local authority thereof. But this term does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State.
  2. 2.Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:
  3. a)he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);
  4. b)if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has an habitual abode;
  5. c)if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which he is a national;
  6. d)if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.
  7. 3.Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall determine by mutual agreement the Contracting State of which that person shall be deemed to be a resident for the purposes of this Agreement.

Article 5

PERMANENT ESTABLISHMENT

  1. 1.For the purposes of this Agreement, the term “permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.
  2. 2.The term “permanent establishment” includes

especially:

  1. a)a place of management;
  2. b)a branch;
  3. c)an office;
  4. d)a factory;
  5. e)a workshop, and
  6. f)a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources.
  7. 3.The term “permanent establishment” likewise encompasses:
  8. a)a building site or construction project, but only where such site or project continues for a period of more than twelve months;
    1. b)an installation or assembly project supervisory activities in connection therewith, but only where such project or activities continue for a period of more than six months;
    2. c)the furnishing of services, including consultancy services, by a resident of one of the Contracting States through employees or other personnel, where activities of that nature continue for the same or a connected project within the other Contracting State for a period or periods aggregating more than six months within any twelve month period.
    3. 4.Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term “permanent establishment” shall be deemed not to include:
    4. a)the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage or display of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
    5. b)the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage or display;
    6. c)the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
    7. d)the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information, for the enterprise;
    8. e)the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character.
    9. 5.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person – other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies – is acting in a Contracting State on behalf of the enterprise of the other Contracting State, the enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the first- mentioned Contracting State, if such a person:
    10. a)has and habitually exercises in the first- mentioned State, an authority to conclude contracts on behalf of the enterprise, unless his activities are limited to the purchase of goods or merchandise for the enterprise;
    11. b)has no such authority, but habitually maintains in the first-mentioned State a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise from which he regularly fills orders or makes deliveries on behalf of the enterprise; or
    12. c)has no such authority but habitually secures orders in the first-mentioned State wholly or almost wholly for the enterprise or for the enterprise and other enterprises which are controlled by it or have a controlling interest in it.
    13. 6.An enterprise of a Contracting State shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business. However, when the activities of such an agent are devoted wholly or almost wholly on behalf of that enterprise, he will not be considered an agent of an independent status within the meaning of this paragraph.
    14. 7.The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either, company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6

INCOME FROM IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

  1. 1.Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture (including the breeding and cultivation of fish) and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships, boats and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.

  1. 3.The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting or use in any other form of immovable property.
  2. 4.The provisions of paragraphs 1 andshall

also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

Article 7

BUSINESS PROFITS

  1. 1.The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to :
  2. a)that permanent establishment;
  3. b)sales in that other State of goods or merchandise of the same or similar kind as those sold through that permanent establishment; or
  4. c)other business activities carried on in that other State of the same or similar kind as those effected through that permanent establishment.
  5. 2.Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.
  6. 3.In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.

However, no such deduction will be allowed in respect of participations to the expenses and losses of the head office or other permanent establishments situated abroad and likewise, the amounts paid by the permanent establishment to the head office of the enterprise or any of its other permanent establishments, by way of royalties, interests, commissions or other similar payments.

  1. 4.No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.
  2. 5.Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Agreement, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

Article 8

SHIPPING AND AIR TRANSPORT

  1. 1.Profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.
  2. 2.Profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships in international traffic may be taxed in the other Contracting State, but the tax imposed in that other State shall be reduced by an amount equal to 50 per cent thereof.
  3. 3.The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

Article 9

ASSOCIATED ENTERPRISES

  1. 1.Where:
  2. a)an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State; or
  3. b)the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State;

and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

  1. 2.Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State – and taxes accordingly – profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are by the first- mentioned State claimed to be profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made

made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits, where that other State considers the adjustment justified. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Agreement and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

Article 10
DIVIDENDS

  1. 1.Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. 2.However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed:
  3. a)10 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company (excluding partnership) which holds directly at least 25 per cent of the capital of the company paying the dividends; .

.                      b) 15 per cent of the gross amount of the

dividends in all other cases.

  1. 3.The term “dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares, “jouissance” shares or “jouissance” rights, founders’ shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.


f                                         4. Profits of a company of a Contracting State

carrying on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein may, after having been taxed under Article 7, be taxed on the remaining amount in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated and in accordance with paragraph 2 of this Article.

  1. 5.Subject to the provisions of paragraph 4 of this Article, where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company’s undistributed profits to a tax on the company’s undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.
  2. 6.The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

Article 11
INTEREST

  1. 1.Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.


 

 

 

 

 


12

 


Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the interest is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed:

  1. a)
    10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest if it is received by any financial institution (including an insurance company);
  2. b)15 percent of the gross amount of the interest in other cases.
  3. 3.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, interest arising in:
  4. a)Thailand and paid to the Government of Turkey or to the Central Bank of Turkey or to the Turkish Eximbank shall be exempt from Thai tax;
  5. b)Turkey and paid to the Government of Thailand, the Bank of Thailand, or Export-Import Bank of Thailand shall be exempt from Turkish tax.
  6. 4.The term “interest” as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor’s profits, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, as well as income assimilated to income from money lent by the taxation law of the Contracting State in which the income arises.
  7. 5.The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt- claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
  8. 6.Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.
  9. 1.Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

Article 12
ROYALTIES

  1. 1.Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  2. 2.However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the royalties is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 15 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties.
  3. 3.The term “royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the alienation of or the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films and recordings for radio and television, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment.

14


f                                         4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not

apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

  1. 5.Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the right or property giving rise to the royalties is effectively connected, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.
  2. 6.Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

Article 13
CAPITAL GAINS

  1. 1.Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.


 


15

 


  1. 2.Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.
  2. 3.Gains derivedan      enterprise of a

Contracting State from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic, or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft, shall be taxable only in that State.

  1. 4.Gains from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of this Article and paragraph 3 of Article 12, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident. However, the capital gains mentioned in the foregoing sentence and derived from the other Contracting State, shall be taxable in the other Contracting State if the time period does not exceed one year between acquisition and alienation.

Article 14

INDEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

  1. 1.Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State except in the following circumstances, when such income may also be taxed in the other Contracting State:
  2. a)if he has a fixed base available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities; in that case, only so much of the income as is attributable to that fixed base may be taxed in the other Contracting State; or
  3. b)if his stay in the other Contracting State is for a period or periods amounting to or exceeding in the aggregate 183 days within any twelve-month period; in that case, only so much of the income as is derived from his activities performed in that other
  4. 2.The term “professional services” includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

Article 15

DEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

  1. 1.Subject to the provisions of Articles 16,18,19 and 20, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.
  2. 2.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first- mentioned State if:
  3. a)the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve-month period commencing or ending in the calendar year concerned; and
  4. b)the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State; and
  5. c)the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.
  6. 3.


Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic, by an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.

Article 16

DIRECTOR’S FEES

Directors’ fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

Article 17

ARTISTES AND SPORTSMEN

  1. 1.Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsman, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.
  2. 2.Where income in respect of personal activities

exercised by an entertainer or a sportsman in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsman himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7,   14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the

activities of the entertainer or sportsman are exercised.

  1. 3.Income derived by an entertainer or a sportsman from activities exercised in a Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that State, if the visit to that State is supported wholly or mainly by public funds of the other Contracting State, a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.

Article 18 PENSIONS

1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 19, pensions and other similar remuneration paid to a resident of a Contracting State in consideration of past employment shall be taxable only in that State. This provision shall also apply to life annuities


Article 19

GOVERNMENT SERVICE

  1. 1.Salaries, wages and other similar remuneration, including pensions paid by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority thereof in the discharge of functions of a governmental nature shall be taxable only in that State.
  2. 2.The provisions of Articles 15, 16, 17 and 18 shall apply to salaries, wages and other similar remuneration, and to pensions, in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.

Article 20
STUDENTS

An individual who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and whose visit to the first-mentioned Contracting State is solely for the purpose of:

  1. a)studying at a university or other recognized educational institution; or
  2. b)securing training to qualify him to practise a profession or trade; or
  3. c)studying or carrying out research as a recipient of a grant, allowance or award from a governmental, religious, charitable, scientific, literary or educational organization;
    1. i)remittances from abroad for the purposes of his maintenance, education, study, research or training; and
    2. ii)the grant, allowance or award.

Article 21

PROFESSORS, TEACHERS AND RESEARCHERS

  1. 1.An individual who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State, and who, at the invitation of any university, college, school or other similar educational institution in the first-mentioned Contracting State, visits that first-mentioned Contracting State for a period not exceeding two years solely for the purpose of teaching or research or both at such educational institution shall be exempt from tax in that other Contracting State on any remuneration for such teaching or research provided that such payments arise from sources outside that other State.
  2. 2.The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income from research if such research is undertaken by the individual primarily for the private benefit of a specific person or persons.

Article 22
OTHER INCOME

Items of income of a resident of a Contracting State not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Agreement may be taxed in the State where the income arises.

Article 23

ELIMINATION OF DOUBLE TAXATION


which, exclusive of income covered by paragraph b), hereafter, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, may be taxed in Thailand, Turkey shall exempt such income from tax but may, in calculating tax on the remaining income of that person, apply the rate of tax which would have been applicable if the exempted income had not been so exempted.

  1. b)Where a resident of Turkey derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 10, 11, 12 and paragraph 4 of Article 13 of this Agreement, may be taxed in Thailand, Turkey shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that person, an amount equal to the tax paid in Thailand. Such deductions shall not, however, exceed that part of the tax, as computed before the deduction is given, which is appropriate to the income that may be taxed in Thailand.
  2. c)For the purposes of the credit referred to in paragraph 1 b), the term “tax paid in Thailand” shall be deemed to include any amount which would have been payable as Thai tax for any year but for an exemption or reduction of tax granted for that year or any part thereof under the provisions of the Investment Promotion Act (B.E.2520) or of the Revenue Code (B.E.2481) which are designated to promote economic development in Thailand, or which may be introduced hereafter in modification of, or in addition to, the existing laws for promoting economic development in Thailand.
  3. d)The provisions of paragraph 1 c) shall cease to have effect after three years from the first day of January of the calendar year next following that in which this Agreement enters into force.

2. Double taxation for the residents of Thailand shall be eliminated as follows:

The amount of Turkish tax payable under the laws of Turkey and in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, whether directly or by deduction, by a resident of Thailand, in respect of profits or income arising in Turkey, which has been subjected to tax both in Turkey and Thailand, shall be allowed as a credit against Thai tax payable in respect of such profits or income provided that such credit shall not exceed the Thai tax (as computed before allowing any such credit) which is appropriate

Article 24

NON-DISCRIMINATION

  1. 1.Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith, which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances, in particular with respect to residence, are or may be subjected.
  2. 2.Subject to the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 10, the taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities.
  3. 3.Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital

of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first-mentioned State are or may be subjected.     N

  1. 4.These provisions shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.
  2. 5.The provisions of this Article shall only apply to the taxes which are the subject of this Agreement.

Article 25


MUTUAL AGREEMENT PROCEDURE

1. Where a resident of a Contracting State


r                     provided by the domestic law of those States, present his case to the

competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 24, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national. The case must be presented within the period prescribed by the domestic law of the ;          Contracting States,

r

  1. 2.The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Agreement. Any agreement reached shall be implemented within the period prescribed in the domestic law of the Contracting States.
  2. 3.The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubtsas                            to the interpretation or

application of the Agreement. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Agreement.

  1. 4.The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs. When it seems advisable in order to reach agreement to have an oral exchage of opinions, such exchange may take place through a joint commission consisting of representatives of the competent authorities of the Contracting.

Article 26

EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION

1.       The competent authorities of the Contracting

States shall exchange such information as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by the Agreement insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Agreement. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained

persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes covered by the Agreement. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.

2. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

  1. a)to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
  2. b)to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;
  3. c)supply information which would

disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).

Article 27

MEMBERS OF DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND CONSULAR POSTS

Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the fiscal privileges of members of diplomatic missions or consular posts under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

Article 28

ENTRY INTO FORCE

1. Each Contracting State shall notify the other Contracting State the completion of the procedures required by its law for the bringing into force of this Agreement. This Agreement


 

2. The provisions of this Agreement shall have effect:

 


 


a) with regard to taxes withheld at source, in respect of amounts paid or credited on or after the first day of January next following the date upon which the Agreement enters into force; and

b) with regard to other taxes, in respect of taxable years or accounting period beginning on or after the first day of January next following the date upon which the Agreement enters into force.

Article 29
TERMINATION

This Agreement shall remain in force until terminated by a Contracting State. Either Contracting State may terminate the Agreement, through diplomatic channels, by giving notice of termination at least six months before the end of any calendar year beginning after the expiration of five years from the date of entry into force of the Agreement. In such event, the Agreement shall cease to have effect:

• a) with regard to taxes withheld at source, in respect of amounts paid or credited after the end of a calendar year in which such notice is given; and

b) with regard to other taxes, in respect of taxable years or accounting period beginning after the end of a calendar year in which such notice is given.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned plenipotentiaries have signed the present Agreement and have affixed their seals thereto.


Done in duplicate at Bangkok, on this IIth day of April 2002, in the Thai, Turkish and English languages, all three texts being equally authentic. In case of any divergence in interpretation of the Thai and Turkish texts, the English text shall prevail.

PROTOCOL

At the moment of signing the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income, the undersigned have agreed upon the following provisions which shall constitute an integral part of the Agreement.

1. With reference to this Agreement:

It is understood that:

  1. (a)the profits also means income;
  2. (b)the term “legal head office” in the case of Turkey means the registered office registered under the Turkish Code of Commerce.
  3. 2.With reference to paragraph 1 fd) of Article 3:

It is understood that the term “person” also includes any other entity deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State.

  1. 3.With reference to Article 7:

If the information available to the taxation authority of a Contracting State is inadequate to determine the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment of an enterprise, nothing in this Article shall affect the application of any tax law of that State relating to the determination of the tax liability of a person provided that that law shall be applied, so far as the information available to the taxation authority permits, consistently with the principles of this Article.

  1. 4.With reference to paragraph 3 of Article 10:


It is understood that the term “dividends”, in the case of Turkey includes income derived from ail investment fund and investment trust.

For purposes of paragraph 3 of Article XXII (Consultation) of “The General Agreement on Trade in Services”, the Contracting States agree that, notwithstanding that paragraph, any dispute between them as to whether a measure falls within the scope of this Agreement may be brought before the Council for Trade in Services, as provided by that paragraph, only with the consent of both Contracting States. Any doubt as to the interpretation of this paragraph shall be resolved under paragraph 3 of Article 25 of this Agreement or, failing agreement under that procedure, pursuant to any other procedure agreed to by both Contracting States.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, duly authorized thereto, have signed the present Protocol.

Done in duplicate at Bangkok, on this 11th day of April 2002, in the Thai, Turkish and English languages, all three texts being equally authentic. In case of any divergence in interpretation of the Thai and Turkish texts, the English text shall prevail.